Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Factors and Their Influence on Corporate Governance Practices

Published On: 1st July, 2024

Authored By: Rahul Reddy Koildhine
University of Hertfordshire


Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) factors have become increasingly significant in shaping corporate governance practices. These factors not only affect the strategic decisions and operational practices of companies but also influence how companies are perceived by investors, regulators, and other stakeholders. This article examines the impact of ESG factors on corporate governance, with a focus on how these considerations are integrated into governance frameworks and practices.

ESG Factors and Corporate Governance

  1. Environmental Factors Environmental factors encompass a company’s impact on the natural environment, including issues like climate change, resource management, and pollution. Companies are increasingly required to disclose their environmental impact and sustainability efforts. Effective corporate governance in this context involves:
    • Disclosure and Reporting: Enhanced transparency through sustainability reports and compliance with frameworks such as the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) and Global Reporting Initiative (GRI).
    • Risk Management: Incorporating environmental risks into the company’s overall risk management framework to mitigate potential financial and reputational damage.
  2. Social Factors Social factors pertain to a company’s relationships with employees, customers, suppliers, and the communities in which it operates. Governance practices influenced by social factors include:
    • Diversity and Inclusion: Policies promoting diversity and inclusion within the board and the broader workforce.
    • Stakeholder Engagement: Mechanisms to engage with stakeholders, understand their concerns, and integrate their feedback into corporate strategies.
  3. Governance Factors Governance factors involve the internal systems and processes that ensure effective decision-making, accountability, and compliance within a company. ESG influences governance through:
    • Board Structure and Oversight: Ensuring that boards have the necessary expertise and independence to oversee ESG issues effectively.
    • Executive Compensation: Linking executive remuneration to ESG performance metrics to align management’s interests with long-term sustainability goals.

Key ESG Influences on Corporate Governance

  1. Climate-Related Disclosures: One major area of influence is climate-related disclosures. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has proposed rules requiring companies to provide detailed information about climate risks and their impacts on financial statements. This move represents a shift from a principles-based approach to a more prescriptive model, which mandates disclosures regardless of materiality to ensure transparency about climate risks​ (Harvard Corp. Governance Forum)​​ (Harvard Corp. Governance Forum)​.
  2. Diversity and Inclusion: Corporate governance is also increasingly influenced by diversity and inclusion mandates. For instance, the European Union’s Gender Balance Directive requires large companies to achieve specific targets for gender representation on boards by mid-2026. Similarly, in the U.S., there has been a significant push for racial and gender equity audits, driven by shareholder proposals and legal actions​ (Chambers Practice Guides)​.
  3. Legal Actions and Settlements: Recent legal actions underscore the enforcement of ESG principles. In 2022, the SEC charged a Brazilian mining company for misrepresenting dam safety, and a U.S. investment adviser was penalized for misleading claims about ESG quality reviews of their funds. These cases reflect heightened scrutiny and the potential for significant penalties related to ESG misstatements​ (Harvard Corp. Governance Forum)​.

Impact of ESG on Corporate Governance Practices

The integration of ESG factors into corporate governance practices leads to several notable impacts:

  1. Enhanced Accountability and Transparency ESG considerations require companies to enhance their accountability and transparency. This involves rigorous disclosure practices, improved stakeholder communication, and adherence to international standards and frameworks. Effective governance frameworks now include ESG metrics as a critical component of corporate reporting and decision-making processes.
  2. Long-Term Value Creation ESG factors emphasize long-term value creation over short-term gains. By focusing on sustainability, companies can improve their resilience, reduce risks, and capitalize on new opportunities. Corporate governance practices thus evolve to prioritize sustainable growth and long-term stakeholder value.
  3. Investor Confidence and Market Performance Investors are increasingly factoring ESG criteria into their investment decisions. Companies that effectively integrate ESG considerations into their governance frameworks are more likely to attract investment from ESG-focused funds and investors. This, in turn, can positively influence a company’s market performance and valuation.
  4. Enhanced Risk Management Integrating ESG factors into corporate governance helps companies identify and mitigate risks that could affect their reputation, operations, and financial performance. By proactively addressing environmental and social issues, companies can enhance their resilience and adaptability in a rapidly changing global landscape​ (Talent Order)​.
  5. Regulatory Compliance and Investor Expectations Governments and regulatory bodies worldwide are increasingly mandating the disclosure of ESG-related information. Compliance with these regulations is essential for companies seeking to operate transparently and responsibly. Additionally, investors are prioritizing ESG criteria in their decision-making processes, recognizing that companies with strong ESG practices are better positioned to manage risks and achieve sustainable returns​ (Corporate Finance Institute)​​ (Talent Order)​.
  6. Board Composition and Diversity ESG factors influence corporate governance by promoting greater diversity and inclusion within corporate boards. For example, State Street Global Advisors and Goldman Sachs have implemented policies to vote against or avoid working with companies that do not meet specific diversity criteria on their boards. This push for diversity is based on research indicating that diverse boards are linked to better financial performance and decision-making​ (LexisNexis)​.
  7. Corporate Culture and Ethical Practices ESG criteria also shape corporate culture by promoting ethical behaviour and accountability. Companies are encouraged to establish policies that ensure respectful treatment of employees, prevent harassment, and foster a positive corporate culture. This focus on ethical governance not only enhances employee morale and productivity but also builds trust with stakeholders​ (LexisNexis)​​ (Talent Order)​.
  8. Stakeholder Engagement ESG integration requires companies to engage more deeply with their stakeholders, including employees, customers, suppliers, and the communities in which they operate. This engagement helps companies understand stakeholder concerns and expectations, leading to more informed and responsible decision-making. As a result, companies that excel in stakeholder engagement often enjoy stronger relationships and a better reputation​ (Talent Order)​.
  9. Long-term Sustainability and Performance Companies that incorporate ESG factors into their governance practices are better positioned for long-term sustainability and performance. By addressing environmental and social issues, companies can unlock new opportunities for innovation and growth, attract and retain top talent, and build a loyal customer base. Furthermore, strong ESG practices can lead to improved financial performance by reducing costs, enhancing efficiency, and mitigating risks​ (Corporate Finance Institute)​​ (Talent Order)​.
  10. Enhanced Board Oversight and Accountability
  • Diverse Expertise: Boards are increasingly expected to include members with expertise in ESG issues to ensure comprehensive oversight.
  • Accountability Structures: There is a growing emphasis on holding boards accountable for ESG performance, with specific committees dedicated to sustainability and ethical practices.
  1. Transparency and Reporting
  • ESG Reporting: Companies are now required to provide detailed ESG reports, which include metrics on environmental impact, social responsibility, and governance practices.
  • Disclosure Standards: Adherence to global standards like the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) is becoming more common, ensuring transparency and comparability.
  1. Risk Management
  • Integrated Risk Management: ESG factors are integrated into enterprise risk management frameworks, identifying risks related to climate change, regulatory changes, and social unrest.
  • Long-term Perspective: Boards are encouraged to adopt a long-term view, considering the sustainability of their business practices and the potential impact on future generations.
  1. Stakeholder Engagement
  • Broader Stakeholder Focus: Governance practices now include a broader array of stakeholders, not just shareholders, considering the interests of employees, customers, communities, and the environment.
  • Active Engagement: Companies actively engage with stakeholders to understand their concerns and expectations regarding ESG issues, which influences corporate strategies and policies.
  1. Performance Metrics and Incentives
  • ESG-linked Compensation: Executive compensation packages increasingly include ESG performance metrics, aligning management incentives with sustainable and ethical business practices.
  • KPIs for ESG: Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) related to ESG are established to track progress and hold management accountable for achieving specific goals.
  1. Regulatory Compliance
  • Regulatory Requirements: Compliance with regulations regarding ESG disclosures and practices is becoming a critical aspect of corporate governance. Governments and regulatory bodies are imposing stricter rules on ESG compliance.
  • Proactive Compliance: Companies are adopting proactive compliance strategies to stay ahead of regulatory requirements and avoid potential legal and reputational risks.
  1. Cultural and Ethical Shifts
  • Ethical Business Practices: There is a shift towards fostering a corporate culture that prioritizes ethical behaviour and social responsibility.
  • Cultural Integration: Integrating ESG values into the corporate culture ensures that these principles are embedded in everyday business operations and decision-making processes.

Recent Developments in India: Case Law and Regulation

In India, ESG regulations have been gaining traction with significant regulatory updates from the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). One notable development is the introduction of the Business Responsibility and Sustainability Report (BRSR), which replaced the earlier Business Responsibility Report (BRR).


Introduced in 2023, the BRSR Core mandates the top 1,000 listed entities by market capitalization to disclose their ESG policies and practices. This includes specific disclosures on environmental, social, and governance metrics, aligning with global standards such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDGs). Companies must report on their greenhouse gas emissions, water usage, and other key sustainability indicators​ (Chambers & Partners)​​ (SC Legal News)​.

Case Study: Infosys and Green Building Standards

Infosys is a prime example of a company actively incorporating ESG factors into its operations. The company has established a new development center that adheres to green building standards, reflecting its commitment to sustainability. This facility aims to engage local talent and reduce environmental impact by integrating advanced eco-friendly technologies​ (Chambers & Partners)​.

Recent Case Law

One notable case that underscores the importance of ESG in corporate governance in India is the SEBI vs. Satyam Computer Services Ltd. case. This case highlighted severe governance lapses and fraudulent financial practices. As a result, SEBI introduced stricter guidelines and mandatory disclosures under the BRSR to prevent similar occurrences in the future​ (PolicyLaw)​.

Other Examples

  1. Diversity and Board Representation: Shareholder lawsuits have targeted companies for failing to follow through on diversity commitments. Although many of these cases have been dismissed, some have resulted in settlements requiring companies to enhance their diversity practices. For example, one notable settlement involved a company committing $50 million to workplace and board-level reforms aimed at promoting diversity, equity, and inclusion​ (Harvard Corp. Governance Forum)​.
  2. Environmental Accountability: A significant case involved the SEC’s action against Vale S.A., a Brazilian mining company, for misleading investors about the safety of its dams, which had severe environmental and social repercussions. This case highlights the importance of accurate environmental disclosures and the potential legal risks associated with failing to provide truthful information​ (Harvard Corp. Governance Forum)​.
  3. Consumer Protection and ESG Claims: There has been a rise in consumer protection cases related to ESG claims. Companies have faced lawsuits over allegedly misleading statements about the environmental impact of their products. These cases, often based on state consumer protection laws, emphasize the need for companies to ensure the accuracy of all public statements regarding their ESG efforts​ (Harvard Corp. Governance Forum)​.


The influence of ESG factors on corporate governance practices is profound and multifaceted. By integrating environmental, social, and governance considerations into their governance frameworks, companies can enhance transparency, accountability, and long-term value creation. As regulatory pressures and stakeholder expectations continue to rise, the integration of ESG factors will remain a critical component of effective corporate governance. The regulatory landscape is also evolving, with numerous state and federal initiatives targeting ESG practices. For instance, several states have introduced anti-ESG legislation, while others have enacted laws promoting ESG disclosures and practices. At the federal level, the Department of Labor’s rule permitting ESG considerations in retirement plans and the SEC’s ongoing development of ESG-related disclosure rules reflect the broader regulatory emphasis on ESG issues​ (Harvard Corp. Governance Forum)​​ (Harvard Corp. Governance Forum)​.

In summary, ESG factors are increasingly shaping corporate governance through both regulatory requirements and legal actions. Companies must navigate this complex landscape by ensuring transparent and accurate ESG disclosures and by integrating ESG considerations into their governance frameworks to mitigate legal and reputational risks.


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